The Keenan Group, Berkeley

Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, UC Berkeley

Climate and Ecosystem Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.

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* indicates a mentored student or post-doc; group members in bold


New Results

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Keenan TF, Moore DJP, Desai A. (2019) Growth and opportunities in networked synthesis through AmeriFlux. New Phytologist (in press)

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*Luo X , Croft H, Chen JM, He L, Keenan TF. (2019) Improved estimates of global terrestrial photosynthesis using information on leaf chlorophyll content. Global Change Biology (in press)

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Liu Y, Piao S, Grasser T, Ciais P, Yang H, Wang H, Keenan TF, et al. (2019) CO2-enhanced terrestrial carbon sink constrained by field experiments. Nature Geoscience (in press)

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Lavergne A, Graven H, De Kauwe M, Keenan TF, Medlyn B, Prentice IC (2019) Observed and modelled historical trends in the water use efficiency of plants and ecosystems. Global Change Biology (in press)

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Zhu P, Zhuang Q, Welp L, Ciais P, Heimann M, Peng B, Li W, Bernacchi C, Roedenbeck C, Keenan TF (2019) Recent warming has resulted in smaller gains in net carbon uptake in northern high latitudes. Journal of Climate (in press)

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Huang M, Piao S, Ciais P, Peñuelas J, Wang X, Keenan TF, et el. (2019) Air temperature optima of vegetation productivity across global biomes. Nature Ecology and Evolution 3, 772–779

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Stocker B, Zscheischler J, Keenan TF et al. (2019) Drought impacts on terrestrial primary production underestimated by satellite monitoring. Nature Geoscience, 12: 264–270

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Keenan TF et al. (2019) Widespread inhibition of daytime ecosystem respiration. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 3: 407–415

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*Smith N, Keenan TF, et al. (2019) Global photosynthetic capacity is optimized to the environment. Ecology Letters, 22: 506-517

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*Chavana-Bryant C, Malhi Y, Anastasiou A, Enquist BJ, Cosio EG, Keenan TF et al. (2019) Leaf age effects on the spectral predictability of leaf traits in Amazonian canopy trees. Science of The Total Environment, 666: 1301–1315.
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Highlights

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Keenan TF et al. (2019) Widespread inhibition of daytime ecosystem respiration. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 3: 407–415

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*Smith N, Keenan TF, et al. (2019) Global photosynthetic capacity is optimized to the environment. Ecology Letters, 22: 506-517

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Keenan TF, Williams CA. (2018) The Terrestrial Carbon Sink. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 43: 219–243.

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Keenan TF, Riley WJ. (2018) Greening of the land surface in the world’s cold regions consistent with recent warming. Nature Climate Change, 8: 825–829.

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Wang H, Prentice IC, Keenan TF, Davis TW, Wright IJ, Cornwell WK, Evans BJ, Peng C. (2017) Towards a universal model for carbon dioxide uptake by plants. Nature Plants, 3: 734–741.

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Keenan TF, Niinemets Ü. (2016) Global leaf trait estimates biased due to plasticity in the shade. Nature Plants, 3: 16201.

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Keenan TF, Prentice IC, Canadell JG, Williams CA, Wang H, Raupach M, Collatz GJ. (2016) Recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 due to enhanced terrestrial carbon uptake. Nature Communications, 7: 13428.

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Hufkens K, Keenan TF, Flanagan LB, Scott RL, Bernacchi CJ, Joo E, Brunsell NA, Verfaillie J, Richardson AD. (2016) Productivity of North American grasslands is increased under future climate scenarios despite rising aridity. Nature Climate Change, 6: 710–714.

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Wolf S, Keenan TF, Fisher JB, Baldocchi DD, Desai AR, Richardson AD, Scott RL, Law BE, Litvak ME, Brunsell NA, Peters W, van der Laan-Luijkx IT. (2016) Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 5880–5885.

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Luo Y, Keenan TF, Smith M. (2015) Predictability of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Global Change Biology, 21: 1737-1751.

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Keenan TF, Davidson EA, Munger JW, Richardson AD. (2013) Rate my data: Quantifying the value of ecological data for the development of models of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Ecological Applications, 23: 273–286.

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Keenan TF, Hollinger DY, Bohrer G, Dragoni D, Munger JW, Schmid HP, Richardson AD. (2013) Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499: 324–327.
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Full List

2019

[76]
Huang M, Piao S, Ciais P, Peñuelas J, Wang X, Keenan TF, et el. (2019) Air temperature optima of vegetation productivity across global biomes. Nature Ecology and Evolution 3, 772–779

[75]
Stocker B, Zscheischler J, Keenan TF et al. (2019) Drought impacts on terrestrial primary production underestimated by satellite monitoring. Nature Geoscience, 12: 264–270

[74]
Keenan TF Migliavacca M, Papale D, Baldocchi D, Reichstein M, Torn M, Wutzler T (2019) Widespread inhibition of daytime ecosystem respiration. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 3: 407–415

[73]
*Smith NG, Keenan TF, Prentice IC, Wang H, Wright IJ, Niinemets Ü et al. (2019) Global photosynthetic capacity is optimized to the environment. Ecology Letters, 22: 506–517.

[72]
*Chavana-Bryant C, Malhi Y, Anastasiou A, Enquist BJ, Cosio EG, Keenan TF et al. (2019) Leaf age effects on the spectral predictability of leaf traits in Amazonian canopy trees. Science of The Total Environment, 666: 1301–1315.

2018

[71]
Keenan TF, Williams CA. (2018) The Terrestrial Carbon Sink. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 43: 219–243.

[70]
Keenan TF, Riley WJ. (2018) Greening of the land surface in the world’s cold regions consistent with recent warming. Nature Climate Change, 8: 825–829.

[69]
*Luo X, Keenan TF, Fisher JB, Jiménez-Muñoz J-C, Chen JM, Jiang C, Ju W, Perakalapudi N-V, Ryu Y, Tadić JM. (2018) The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on global photosynthesis using satellite remote sensing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 373: 20170409.

[68]
*Lee MS, Hollinger DY, Keenan TF, Ouimette AP, Ollinger SV, Richardson AD. (2018) Model-based analysis of the impact of diffuse radiation on CO2 exchange in a temperate deciduous forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 249: 377–389.

[67]
Ducker JA, Holmes CD, Keenan TF, Fares S, Goldstein AH, Mammarella I, Munger JW, Schnell J. (2018) Synthetic ozone deposition and stomatal uptake at flux tower sites. Biogeosciences, 15: 5395–5413.

[66]
*Huang M, Wang X, Keenan TF, Piao S. (2018) Drought timing influences the legacy of tree growth recovery. Global Change Biology, 24: 3546–3559.

[65]
Stocker BD, Zscheischler J, Keenan TF, Prentice IC, Peñuelas J, Seneviratne SI. (2018) Quantifying soil moisture impacts on light use efficiency across biomes. New Phytologist, 218: 1430–1449.

[64]
Ouimette AP, Ollinger S V., Richardson AD, Hollinger DY, Keenan TF, Lepine LC, Vadeboncoeur MA. (2018) Carbon fluxes and interannual drivers in a temperate forest ecosystem assessed through comparison of top-down and bottom-up approaches. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 256–257: 420–430.

[63]
Sihi D, Davidson EA, Chen M, Savage KE, Richardson AD, Keenan TF, Hollinger DY. (2018) Merging a mechanistic enzymatic model of soil heterotrophic respiration into an ecosystem model in two AmeriFlux sites of northeastern USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 252: 155–166.

[62]
Richardson AD, Hufkens K, Milliman T, Aubrecht DM, Chen M, Gray JM, Johnston MR, Keenan TF, Klosterman ST, Kosmala M, Melaas EK, Friedl MA, Frolking S. (2018) Tracking vegetation phenology across diverse North American biomes using PhenoCam imagery. Scientific Data, 5: 1–24.

[61]
Collalti A, Trotta C, Keenan TF, Ibrom A, Bond-Lamberty B, Grote R, Vicca S, Reyer CPO, Migliavacca M, Veroustraete F et al. (2018) Thinning Can Reduce Losses in Carbon Use Efficiency and Carbon Stocks in Managed Forests Under Warmer Climate. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10: 2427–2452.

2017

[60]
Wang H, Prentice IC, Keenan TF, Davis TW, Wright IJ, Cornwell WK, Evans BJ, Peng C. (2017) Towards a universal model for carbon dioxide uptake by plants. Nature Plants, 3: 734–741.

[59]
Albert LP, Keenan TF, Burns SP, Huxman TE, Monson RK. (2017) Climate controls over ecosystem metabolism: insights from a fifteen-year inductive artificial neural network synthesis for a subalpine forest. Oecologia, 184: 1–17.

[58]
Meredith LK, Commane R, Keenan TF, Klosterman ST, Munger JW, Templer PH, Tang J, Wofsy SC, Prinn RG. (2017) Ecosystem fluxes of hydrogen in a mid-latitude forest driven by soil microorganisms and plants. Global Change Biology, 23: 906–919.

[57]
Niu S, Fu Z, Luo Y, Stoy PC, Keenan TF, Poulter B, Zhang L, Piao S, Zhou X, Zheng H, Han J, Wang Q, Yu G. (2017) Interannual variability of ecosystem carbon exchange: From observation to prediction. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 26: 1225–1237.

[56]
Wang H, Prentice IC, Davis TW, Keenan TF, Wright IJ, Peng C. (2017) Photosynthetic responses to altitude: an explanation based on optimality principles. New Phytologist, 213: 976–982.

[55]
Walker AP, Quaife T, van Bodegom PM, De Kauwe MG, Keenan TF, Joiner J, Lomas MR, MacBean N, Xu C, Yang X, Woodward FI. (2017) The impact of alternative trait-scaling hypotheses for the maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (Vcmax) on global gross primary production. New Phytologist, 215: 1370–1386.

[54]
Mastrotheodoros T, Pappas C, Molnar P, Burlando P, Keenan TF, Gentine P, Gough CM, Fatichi S. (2017) Linking plant functional trait plasticity and the large increase in forest water use efficiency. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 122: 2393–2408.

[53]
Nadal-Sala D, Keenan TF, Sabaté S, Gracia C. (2017) Forest Eco-Physiological Models: Water Use and Carbon Sequestration. In: Managing Forest Ecosystems: The Challenge of Climate Change. 2017 doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28250-3

2016

[52]
Keenan TF, Prentice IC, Canadell JG, Williams CA, Wang H, Raupach M, Collatz GJ. (2016) Recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 due to enhanced terrestrial carbon uptake. Nature Communications, 7: 13428.

[51]
Keenan TF, Niinemets Ü. (2016) Global leaf trait estimates biased due to plasticity in the shade. Nature Plants, 3: 16201.

[50]
Wolf S, Keenan TF, Fisher JB, Baldocchi DD, Desai AR, Richardson AD, Scott RL, Law BE, Litvak ME, Brunsell NA, Peters W, van der Laan-Luijkx IT. (2016) Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 5880–5885.

[49]
*Ukkola AM, Prentice IC, Keenan TF, van Dijk AIJM, Viney NR, Myneni RB, Bi J. (2016) Reduced streamflow in water-stressed climates consistent with CO2 effects on vegetation. Nature Climate Change, 6: 75–78.

[48]
*Ukkola AM, Keenan TF, Kelley DI, Prentice IC. (2016) Vegetation plays an important role in mediating future water resources. Environmental Research Letters, 11: 094022.

[47]
De Kauwe MG, Keenan TF, Medlyn BE, Prentice IC, Terrer C. (2016) Satellite based estimates underestimate the effect of CO2 fertilization on net primary productivity. Nature Climate Change, 6: 892–893.

[46]
Baldocchi D, Ryu Y, Keenan TF. (2016) Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability. F1000Research, 5: 2371.

[45]
Yue X, Keenan TF, Munger W, Unger N. (2016) Limited effect of ozone reductions on the 20-year photosynthesis trend at Harvard forest. Global Change Biology, 22: 3750–3759.

[44]
Zscheischler J, Fatichi S, Wolf S, Blanken PD, Bohrer G, Clark K, Desai AR, Hollinger D, Keenan TF, Novick KA, Seneviratne SI. (2016) Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 121: 2186–2198.

[43]
Van Gorsel E, Wolf S, Cleverly J, Isaac P, Haverd V, Ewenz C, Arndt S, Beringer J, Resco de Dios V, Evans BJ et al. (2016) Carbon uptake and water use in woodlands and forests in southern Australia during an extreme heat wave event in the ‘angry Summer’ of 2012/2013. Biogeosciences, 13: 5947–5964.

[42]
Hufkens K, Keenan TF, Flanagan LB, Scott RL, Bernacchi CJ, Joo E, Brunsell NA, Verfaillie J, Richardson AD. (2016) Productivity of North American grasslands is increased under future climate scenarios despite rising aridity. Nature Climate Change, 6: 710–714.

[41]
Moore CE, Brown T, Keenan TF, Duursma RA, van Dijk AIJM, Beringer J, Culvenor D, Evans B, Huete A, Hutley LB et al. (2016) Reviews and syntheses: Australian vegetation phenology: new insights from satellite remote sensing and digital repeat photography. Biogeosciences, 13: 5085–5102.

2015

[40]
Luo Y, Keenan TF, Smith M. (2015) Predictability of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Global Change Biology, 21: 1737-1751.

[39]
Niinemets Ü, Keenan TF, Hallik L. (2015) A worldwide analysis of within-canopy variations in leaf structural, chemical and physiological traits across plant functional types. New Phytologist, 205: 973–993.

[38]
Doblas-Miranda E, Martínez-Vilalta J, Lloret F, Álvarez A, Ávila A, Bonet FJJ, Brotons L, Castro J, Curiel Yuste J, Díaz M et al. (2015) Reassessing global change research priorities in mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems: how far have we come and where do we go from here? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 24: 25–43.

[37]
Keenan TF, Richardson AD. (2015) The timing of autumn senescence is affected by the timing of spring phenology: Implications for predictive models. Global Change Biology, 21: 2634–2641.

[36]
Yue X, Unger N, Keenan TF, Zhang X, Vogel CSS. (2015) Probing the past 30-year phenology trend of US deciduous forests. Biogeosciences, 12: 4693–4709.

[35]
Parazoo NC, Barnes E, Worden J, Harper AB, Bowman KB, Frankenberg C, Wolf S, Litvak M, Keenan TF. (2015) Influence of ENSO and the NAO on terrestrial carbon uptake in the Texas-northern Mexico region. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29: 1247–1265.

2014

[34]
Grote R, Morfopoulos C, Niinemets Ü, Sun Z, Keenan TF, Pacifico F, Butler T. (2014) A fully integrated isoprenoid emissions model coupling emissions to photosynthetic characteristics. Plant, Cell and Environment, 37: 1965–1980.

[33]
Keenan TF, Gray J, Friedl MA, Toomey MP, Bohrer G, Hollinger DY, Munger JW, O’Keefe J, Schmid HP, Wing IS et al. (2014) Net carbon uptake has increased through warming-induced changes in temperate forest phenology. Nature Climate Change, 4: 598–604.

[32]
Besson CK, Lobo-do-Vale R, Rodrigues ML, Almeida P, Herd A, Grant OM, David TS, Schmidt M, Otieno D, Keenan TF, Gouveia C, Mériaux C, Chaves MM, Pereira JS. (2014) Cork oak physiological responses to manipulated water availability in a Mediterranean woodland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 184: 230–242.

[31]
Keenan TF, Hollinger DY, Bohrer G, Dragoni D, Munger JW, Schmid HP, Richardson AD. (2014) reply to Ozone and Water Use Efficiency. Nature, 507: 2013–2015.

[30]
Keenan TF, *Darby B, *Felts E, Sonnentag O, Friedl MA, Hufkens K, O’Keefe J, Klosterman S, Munger JW, Toomey M, Richardson AD. (2014) Tracking forest phenology and seasonal physiology using digital repeat photography: A critical assessment. Ecological Applications, 24: 1478–1489.

[29]
Niinemets Ü, Keenan TF. (2014) Photosynthetic responses to stress in Mediterranean evergreens: Mechanisms and models. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 103: 24–41.

[28]
Niu S, Luo Y, Dietze MC, Keenan TF, Shi Z, Li J, III FSC. (2014) The role of data assimilation in predictive ecology. Ecosphere, 5: art65.

[27]
Shoemaker JK, Keenan TF, Hollinger DY, Richardson AD. (2014) Forest ecosystem changes from annual methane source to sink depending on late summer water balance. Geophysical Research Letters, 41: 673–679.

[26]
Friedl MA, Gray JM, Melaas EK, Richardson AD, Hufkens K, Keenan TF et al. (2014) A tale of two springs: using recent climate anomalies to characterize the sensitivity of temperate forest phenology to climate change. Environmental Research Letters, 9: 054006.

2013

[25]
Morfopoulos C, Prentice IC, Keenan TF, Friedlingstein P, Medlyn BE, Peñuelas J, Possell M. (2013) A unifying conceptual model for the environmental responses of isoprene emissions from plants. Annals of Botany, 112: 1223–1238.

[24]
Raczka BM, Davis KJ, Huntzinger D, Neilson RP, Poulter B, Richardson AD, Xiao J, Baker I, Ciais P, Keenan TF et al. (2013) Evaluation of continental carbon cycle simulations with North American flux tower observations. Ecological Monographs, 83: 531–556.

[23]
Richardson AD, Keenan TF, Migliavacca M, Ryu Y, Sonnentag O, Toomey M. (2013) Climate change, phenology, and phenological control of vegetation feedbacks to the climate system. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 169: 156–173.

[22]
Richardson AD, Carbone MS, Keenan TF, Czimczik CI, Hollinger DY, Murakami P, Schaberg PG, Xu X. (2013) Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees. New Phytologist, 197: 850–861.

[21]
Vargas R, Sonnentag O, Abramowitz G, Carrara A, Chen JM, Ciais P, Correia A, Keenan TF, Kobayashi H, Ourcival JM et al. (2013) Drought Influences the Accuracy of Simulated Ecosystem Fluxes: A Model-Data Meta-analysis for Mediterranean Oak Woodlands. Ecosystems, 16: 749–764.

[20]
Carbone MS, Czimczik CI, Keenan TF, Murakami PF, Pederson N, Schaberg PG, Xu X, Richardson AD. (2013) Age, allocation and availability of nonstructural carbon in mature red maple trees. New Phytologist, 200: 1145–1155.

[19]
Keenan TF, Davidson EA, Munger JW, Richardson AD. (2013) Rate my data: Quantifying the value of ecological data for the development of models of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Ecological Applications, 23: 273–286.

[18]
Keenan TF, Hollinger DY, Bohrer G, Dragoni D, Munger JW, Schmid HP, Richardson AD. (2013) Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499: 324–327.

[17]
Serra-Diaz JM, Keenan TF, Ninyerola M, Sabaté S, Gracia C, Lloret F. (2013) Geographical patterns of congruence and incongruence between correlative species distribution models and a process-based ecophysiological growth model. Journal of Biogeography, 40: 1928–1938.

2012

[16]
Keenan TF, Davidson E, Moffat AM, Munger W, Richardson AD. (2012) Using model-data fusion to interpret past trends, and quantify uncertainties in future projections, of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling. Global Change Biology, 18: 2555–2569.

[15]
Keenan TF, Niinemets Ü. (2014) Circadian control of global isoprene emissions. Nature Geosciences, 5: 435.

[14]
Keenan TF, Baker I, Barr A, Ciais P, Davis K, Dietze M, Dragoni D, Gough CM, Grant R, Hollinger D et al. (2012) Terrestrial biosphere model performance for inter-annual variability of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Global Change Biology, 18: 1971–1987.

[13]
Niinemets Ü, Keenan TF. (2012) Measures of Light in Studies on Light-Driven Plant Plasticity in Artificial Environments. Frontiers in Plant Science, 3: 156.

[12]
Migliavacca M, Sonnentag O, Keenan TF, Cescatti A, O’Keefe J, Richardson AD. (2012) On the uncertainty of phenological responses to climate change, and implications for a terrestrial biosphere model. Biogeosciences, 9. doi:10.5194/bg-9-2063-2012

[11]
Hufkens K, Richardson AD, Friedl M, Keenan TF, Sonnentag O, Bailey A, O’Keefe J. (2012) Ecological Impacts of a widespread frost event following early spring leaf-out. Global Change Biology, 18: 2365–2377.

2011

[10]
Keenan TF, Maria Serra J, Lloret F, Ninyerola M, Sabate S. (2011) Predicting the future of forests in the Mediterranean under climate change, with niche- and process-based models: CO2 matters! Global Change Biology, 17: 565–579.

[9]
Keenan TF, Grote R, Sabaté S. (2011) Overlooking the canopy: The importance of canopy structure in scaling isoprenoid emissions from the leaf to the landscape. Ecological Modelling, 222: 737–747.

[8]
Keenan TF, Carbone MS, Reichstein M, Richardson AD. (2011) The model–data fusion pitfall: assuming certainty in an uncertain world. Oecologia, 167: 587–597.

2010

[7]
Keenan TF, Sabate S, Gracia C. (2010) The importance of mesophyll conductance in regulating forest ecosystem productivity during drought periods. Global Change Biology, 16: 1019–1034.

[6]
Grote R, Keenan TF, Lavoir A-V V, Staudt M. (2010) Process-based simulation of seasonality and drought stress in monoterpene emission models. Biogeosciences Discussions, 6: 8961–9004.

[5]
Keenan TF, Sabate S, Gracia C. (2010) Soil water stress and coupled photosynthesis-conductance models: Bridging the gap between conflicting reports on the relative roles of stomatal, mesophyll conductance and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150: 443–453.

2009

[4]
Keenan TF, Niinemets Ü, Sabate S, Gracia C, Peñuelas J, Niinemets U, Sabate S, Gracia C, Penuelas J, Nuelas JP. (2009) Process based inventory of isoprenoid emissions from European forests: model comparisons, current knowledge and uncertainties. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9: 4053–4076.

[3]
Keenan TF, Niinemets Ü, Sabate S, Gracia C, Peñuelas J. (2009) Seasonality of monoterpene emission potentials in Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea : Implications for regional VOC emissions modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114: D22202.

[2]
López BC, Gracia CA, Sabaté S,Keenan T. (2009) Assessing the resilience of Mediterranean holm oaks to disturbances using selective thinning. Acta Oecologica 2009; 35: 849–854.

[1]
Keenan TF, García R, Friend AD, Zaehle S, Gracia C, Sabate S. (2009) Improved understanding of drought controls on seasonal variation in Mediterranean forest canopy CO2 and water fluxes through combined in situ measurements and ecosystem modelling. Biogeosciences, 6: 1423–1444.



PUBLICATIONS (not peer reviewed)



[2]
Pastorello G, Gunter D, Chu H, Christianson D, Trotta C, Canfora E, Faybishenko B, Cheah Y-W, Beekwilder N, Chan S et al. (2017) Hunting Data Rogues at Scale: Data Quality Control for Observational Data in Research Infrastructures. 2017 IEEE 13th International Conference on e-Science (e-Science),: 446–447.

[1]
Keenan TF. (2015) Phenology: Spring greening in a warming world. Nature, 526: 48–49.



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SUMMARY